Insights into the precise timing of gene expression during embryo development
During development, patterns emerge in our cells, shaping tissues, organs, fingers and toes to a design decorated by switching genes 'on' or 'off', or gene expression. With simpler genetics, but similar decisions to make, these fruit flies (Drosophila) make a useful model to study proteins that control gene expression – known as transcription factors. Here scientists use genetic engineering and fluorescent stains to study developmental steps in the fly’s ‘tail’ – finding a transcription factor called tailless (highlighted in blue) rises and falls between early (top row) and later (bottom) stages. Tailless controls the precise timing of patterns of several other transcription factors (green, purple, orange), allowing researchers to predict and test a sort of wiring diagram for the network of genes behind the scenes. As tailless is involved elsewhere in the fly and in human cells, the relationship between timing and gene expression may yield clues to human development.
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